Platonism and Aristotelianism as a source of the differences between internal forms of Western European and Byzantine christian traditions in the Middle Ages
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Keywords

Byzantium, Platonism, Aristotelianism, scholasticism, Sophian phi-losophizing, epistemic philosophizing, Orthodoxy, Catholicism

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Bilodid, V. (2021). Platonism and Aristotelianism as a source of the differences between internal forms of Western European and Byzantine christian traditions in the Middle Ages. Multiversum. Philosophical Almanac, 2(1), 111-139. https://doi.org/10.35423/2078-8142.2021.2.1.07

Abstract

The article examines the peculiarities of the attitude to Greek philosophy in Western Europe and Byzantium in the context of the historical development of the polarity of mentalities and cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. On the one hand, the philosophical teachings of Plato/Plotinus and on the other – Aristotle. It is shown that these polarities in their transformed versions manifested themselves in the division of medieval Europe into the Christian East (Greek-speaking and «Greek-minded» Byzantium) as the direct heir of Greek culture, and into the Christian West, as the direct heir of Latin culture. The adoption of Christianity both in the East and the West through «filters» of different mentalities and cultures along with other historical factors, led to the division of Christianity into Orthodoxy (the «Greek» Church) and Catholicism (the «Latin» Church). It is argued that Latin patristics organically grew in the West into the dominance of scholasticism, which was not the case in the Christian East, where the full formation of scholasticism was blocked and it remained in its infancy in a state of protoscholasticism. It is asserted that the Roman Catholic West of the scholastic era (9-14th centuries), based on both Platonism and Aristotelianism, inherits Epistemic-Aristotelian type of philosophizing as a paradigmatic for its theology and philosophy, whereas the Orthodox East, despite all its oscillations, maintains dominant in antiquity, Platonic line of philosophizing as a paradigmatic for its spiritual culture. Through Aristotle, as the "father" and «First-Philosopher» of scolasticism, Christian Aristotelianism has intensively grown and incorporated itself in the culture of Western Europeans and their mentality. The transformation of Aristotelianism into the «inner form of Western civilization" happened (S. Averintsev).

https://doi.org/10.35423/2078-8142.2021.2.1.07
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