The article consistently substantiates the idea of the special methodological and practical relevance of the philosophy of justice by J. Rawls devoted to the 50th anniversary of the publication of his "Theory of Justice" and the 100th anniversary of the birth of this outstanding modern philosopher. Not only "Theory of Justice", but also such important works of J. Rawls as "Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy" and "Justice as Fairness: A Restatement" are aimed at searching out the ways of building an honest, dignified society and appearing in front of us as the most influential texts of the last century on political philosophy, philosophy of law and morality. To think about "justice as fairness" with Rawls is a constructive philosophical strategy. This very idea is advocated not only by followers but also by critics of Rawls's theory of justice. As the article emphasizes, beginning the ponders on the question of justice, J. Rawls notes that justice, as a fundamental condition of human existence, does not allow the loss of freedom by some to be justified by the great benefits of others. What was embodied in the desire of his "realistic utopia of justice" is to work out the mechanisms for the fair overcoming of social conflicts. And the unconditional importance of suggested by us consistent reconstruction of the relationship between justice and freedom in the thoughts of J. Rawls is also due to the fact that they led to the deep development of modern social and political philosophy, broadened its methodological and conceptual horizons. However, Rawls's philosophy of justice (as emphasized by such prominent philosophers as A. Нonneth, M. Nussbaum, E. Tugendhat, R. Forst) did not go beyond the distributive interpretation of justice and ignored the main issue of justice (and injustice) is the issue of power.
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