Space and dynamics of reflective thinking: disappointment vs eudaimonia
PDF (Українська)


reflective thinking, internal dialogue, crisis, eudemonia, ataraxia, euthymia, The Dispute of a Man with His Ba

Abstract views: 87
PDF Downloads: 103

How to Cite

Liakh, V., & Lukashenko, M. (2021). Space and dynamics of reflective thinking: disappointment vs eudaimonia. Multiversum. Philosophical Almanac, 1(1), 3-15.


In the article, the internal dialogue of a person is analyzed from the standpoint of signs identification of philosophical thinking, carried out both in a state of existential crisis and happiness. This led to the choice of a text in which the internal dialogue is traced, and which is one of the first philosophical works in mankind history. Ancient Egyptian text "The Dispute of a Man with His Ba" is a fragment of a copy dating from the XXII-XXI centuries BC and is known today as Papyrus Berlin 3024. Particular attention is paid to the understanding of reflective thinking by ancient philosophers and modern researchers. It is shown that daily reflective thinking is different on the structure, characteristics and quality from reflective philosophical thinking, which sets the boundaries of reflection and attitude to themselves and reality. It is emphasized that on the one hand, reflective thinking can cause a crisis, revealing the contradictions of the inner and outer world, the feeling of being in this world. On the other hand, the transition from the existential crisis to ataraxia becomes possible due to reflective thinking. After overcoming the crisis, it becomes a habit of asking about the algorithm, motive, purpose and limits of applying the obtained conclusions, which makes the answer to a new question that dynamically affirms a person in an acquired state of eudemonia and ataraxia. This confirms the existence of a close connection between the state and characteristics of consciousness, reflective thinking and the ability to achieve a state of eudemonia and ataraxia. Based on the analysis, the following features of philosophical thinking, in a state of existential crisis, are identified. First, reflection is a way of thinking when each subsequent question is the answer to the previous movement of thought. When, after agreeing with reality, the idea of it in a different way is again questioned. Secondly, philosophical reflective thinking is not only a movement within extremes but also a way to clarify the essence of boundary opposite concepts and their possible changes, to expand the range of new boundaries. Third, philosophizing is an unfinished process, not an accomplished action that begins with surprise or ends with suspicion. Reflexive dialogue is a reflection of the previous reflection, which captures and names everyday life, revealing layer by layer its meanings.
PDF (Українська)


Jaspers, Karl. (1991). The Origin and Goal of History. Moscow: Politizdat. [In Russian].

Liakh, V., Lukashenko, M. (2020). Philosophical analysis of a personal’s self-reflection in the context of internal dialogue (based on “The dispute of a man with his Ba”). Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research, 17, 18-27.

Bateson, Gregory (2016). Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity. Sweden: Phil-osophical Arkiv. [In Russian].

Vittori, S. (2018). Two Direct Speeches in the Last Two Poems of the “Dialogue between a Man and His Ba” (pBerlin 3024, cc. 138-140 and 144-145): A Note of Translation. Linguistics and Literature Studies, 6(4), 183-187.

Ouellet, B. (2004). Le Désillusionné et son ba du Papyrus Berlin 3024. L’herméneutique d’une expérience ontophanique. Montréal: Université de Montréal.

Svendsen, Lars (2017). A Philosophy of Loneliness. Lviv: Vydavnytstvo Anet-ty Antonenko, Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr. [In Ukrainian].

Bolshakov, A. (2001). Man and his Twin. Visualisation and Worldview in Old Kingdom of Egypt. St. Petersburg: Aletheia. [In Russian].

Spirina, S. (2006). Some aspects of translation and interpretation of “The Dis-pute between a Man and his Ba” (Papyrus Berlin 3024). Ancient Egypt. Col-lected papers of Association of Ancient Egypt Studies «MAAT», ІІ, 137-141.

Assmann, J. (1998). Mono-, Pan-, and Cosmotheism: Thinking the ‘One’ in Egyptian Theology. Orient, XXXIII, 130-149.

Hays, C. (2015). A Covenant with Death. Death in the Iron Age II and Its Rhe-torical Uses in Proto-Isaiah. Michigan, Cambridge U. K.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Žabkar, L. (1968). A Study of the Ba Concept in Ancient Egyptian Texts. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. Chicago-Illinois: The University of Chicago, 34, 170.

Tillich, Paul. (2013). The Courage to Be. Kyiv: Dukh і Lіtera. [In Russian].

Hall, Edith. (2019). Aristotle’s Way: How Ancient Wisdom Can Change Your Life. Moscow: Alpina non-fiction. [In Russian].

Arendt, Hannah. (2013). The Life of the Mind. St. Petersburg: Nauka. [In Rus-sian].

Heidegger, Martin. (2006). What Is Called Thinking? Moscow: Publishing House «Territory of the Future». [In Russian].

Mikeshin, M. (2005). Social philosophy of the Scottish Enlightenment. St. Pe-tersburg: St. Petersburg Center for the History of Ideas. [In Russian].

Kahneman, Daniel. (2017). Thinking, Fast and Slow. Kyiv: Nash format. [In Ukrainian].

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Download data is not yet available.