The aim of the paper is the evolution of Christian views on equality in the context of the coherence of anthropological and social factors and processes. Methods of research are the historical (consideration of the category of "equality" in its development), comparative (comparison of the main paradigms of interpretation), hermeneutic (interpretation and disclosure of the semantic range of this concept in the works of theologians and religious scholars). The theoretical basis of the article are the works of the Fathers of Christianity, social doctrines of the churches, encyclicals of the popes Deus Caritas est, Lumen Fidei, Summi Pontificatus, Saritas in Veritate, works of famous scientists, theologians (Bertrand Russell, Vladimir Lossky, Dmitry Sadovsky, Sophrony (Sakharov) , Kallistos Ware, Yuriy Chornomorets etc.). The analysis of the Christian understanding of the category “equality” in the dialectic of social and anthropological is carried out in our article. It is shown that in Christian anthropology the interpretation of the problem of equality in early Christianity had significant differences from ancient philosophy, as it acquires an ontological manifestation in accordance with the doctrine of man as the image and likeness of God. The evolution of ideas about equality from the beginning of Christianity to the present is revealed. The complex relationship between the social and the anthropological in this process is revealed. It is proved that the main characteristic of the evolution of notions of equality is the transition from the assertion of human equality only in the anthropological context as an equal opportunity to achieve the Kingdom of God to the notion of equality outside the anthropological and social dichotomy.
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