Memory versus history by P. Nora. Why and how?
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places of memory, history, collective memory,

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Nosova, H. (2020). Memory versus history by P. Nora. Why and how?. Multiversum. Philosophical Almanac, 2(2), 3-14.


The article is based on an analysis of the works of the French historian Pierre Nora, who, trying to find a "true" history, comes to the opposition of history and memory. Outright political agitation and national imperatives are dominated in History, therefore history cannot be correct and objective. Instead of history, the philosopher believes, we should focus on the right memory. But when memory itself has been torn apart, it can only exist on the basis of "memory places" - mnemonic places. The power of memory is preserved now in the places of memory that accumulate and preserve history. Places of memory have lost their physical or geographical meanings. Meaning and sense are made places of memory important place for history. Due to the nature of the memory places, the multiplicities of their interpretations are the normal. And the past, therefore, became a polysemantic space, focused on the co-presence of many different versions of the interpretation of the same memorial structures (monuments, historical facts and events, texts of the past). Hence the perception of truth is change. Now the truth is not in the "factuality" of the data, but in their "relevance". In the end, Nora makes a rather devastating conclusion for history- that the past has lost its meaning, the present historical consciousness gives meaning to all possible and valid versions of the past, and that official memory (politics of memory) is associated with practices selective forgetting or memory.
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