The cognitivization of logic or why it is now that logic needs support from cognitive science: historical and methodical analysis
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Keywords

Cognitive Science, Formal logic, Informal logic, thinking, reasoning, cognitivization

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Reva, N. (2020). The cognitivization of logic or why it is now that logic needs support from cognitive science: historical and methodical analysis. Multiversum. Philosophical Almanac, 2(1), 171-186. https://doi.org/10.35423/2078-8142.2020.2.1.10

Abstract

Fast technological progress has shifted the interests of scientists all around the world towards the Cognitive and Computer Science. Technological progress united scientists all around the world and gave a new possibilities to conduct more difficult and diverse studies. This change of interests and opportunities undoubtedly influenced the formation of a new type of thinking. Logic, as the science of a specific type of thinking, mostly studied in the form of logical reasoning, cannot be left out. However, as Logic, as a science, does not deal with all manifestations of human thinking, it may need to cooperate with other scientific domains, like Psychology and Cognitive Science, to get the complete picture of this phenomenon. In the article, the author present the possible cooperation of Logic with the Cognitive Science. The author starts with analyzing the methodological principles of the Cognitive Science, which are 1) the interdisciplinary issues that are taken under consideration, 2) an obligatory experimental part, which can be repeated by other scientists for checking, and 3) a one common formal language that can be understood all over the world with no difficulties. Then the author pays a specific attention to the duality of nature of Logic, as a scientific domain. As J. Wolenski put it, the difference is mainly between “being formal” in strict logical way and “being logical” in general way. The author shows how this ambivalence opens the prospects for cooperation with the Cognitive Science. To this end, the author makes historical and methodological review of both disciplines. Thus, the author shows that, on the one hand, the Formal logic created the basis for the modern development of the Artificial Intelligence. Moreover, until now it continue to invest a lot in the improvement of artificial formalized languages, which are actively used for programming the AI. On the other hand, the Informal logic, like the Cognitive Science, deals with the natural language studying, for example, the process of argumentation. This allows the Informal logic to approach real human thinking erroneous as it could be. In conclusion, the author shows how, applying the methodological basis of Cognitive Science to study the real course of human thinking, Logic, both Formal and Informal, can expand the horizons of its research from theoretical to practical and experimental domain. For instance, one of the possible joint work is the study of mental logical models established in humans mind. The other collaboration can be the study of correlation between the logical capability and logical competence of a person and cognitive biases he may have. Some of the mutual studies have already started by Ph. Johnson-Laird, D. O'Brien, and others; however, the most interesting joint researches are yet to come.

https://doi.org/10.35423/2078-8142.2020.2.1.10
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