Sociality and its influence on the formation of medical ethics` models
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sociality, bodility, medical ethics` models, bioethics, deontology

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Lukashenko, M. (2019). Sociality and its influence on the formation of medical ethics` models. Multiversum. Philosophical Almanac, (5-6), 37-49.


In the article, the peculiarities of the relationship between social transformations and changes in medical ethics models are described. Basic ethical principles are analyzed from the perspective of philosophical concepts of different eras. The logic of the formation of medical ethics` models in the context of changes of views on the nature of man and paradigms of sociality, historical features of realization, mutual influence of biotechnologies and social engineering are justified. Transformations of the basic principles of medical ethics in the social perspective are revealed. It has been shown that already at the initial stage of humanity's emergence, illness and treatment have fulfilled social functions. The healing process was sacralized and filled with prescriptions and taboos. Over time, protoinstitutionalization of medicine takes place, new roles are identified, which place the one who heals in a special place in society (priests) or exclude him (shamans). From Axial Age, one can trace the interdependence between the type of sociality and models of medical ethics, the first of which in ancient Greek medicine is the Hippocrates model. The principle of «do no harm» becomes the basic moral setting, which reflects the natural vision of that time of social order and the place of man in it. Paracelsus's paternalistic model is formed around the principle of «do good» in a hierarchically structured society, the order of personalised relationships in which was inveterated in the transcendental. In these models, the physician, as an instrument in the hands of God, had to help restore the harmony of health established by the Creator. A modern society, which was seen as created by humans, presents a deontological model of «fulfilment of responsibilities» by the human-creator. The bioethical principle of «respect for human rights and dignity» prevails in the postmodern networked informational society, going beyond medicine, extending to all spheres of life in the human world and others. However, in modern medicine, apart from bioethics, all significant models of medical ethics of the past coexist in individual medical practice.
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