The subject of the research of the article is the realization and expansion of the thesis of the place of contractualism by T. Hobbes and J.-J. Rousseau in the field of modern and postmodern practical philosophy in the context of social contract theory and its place in contemporary philosophy. The article consistently proves that the most significant definition of a social contract lies in the realm of practical philosophy and is interpreted by it as a mechanism, a way of consistent human existence, the action of a community of people who, together, voluntarily establish and follow the certain rights and obligations. The author offers a comparative analysis of the creative work of T. Hobbes and J.-J. Rousseau, in order to gain an in-depth understanding of the relevance and methodological significance for the time being of their thoughts about social contract. It is noted that, in Hobbes's view, the essence of a social agreement is a voluntary agreement to limit its right and to grant it to a person or a group of persons who are able to enforce these restrictions by all parties to the agreement, that is, by their civil laws. Particular attention is paid to the methodological ambiguity of Rousseau's creative work, which is embodied in his desire to combine the incompatible, namely, the capture of the primordial natural and free state of man and the support of the theory of the absolutist state. The reconstruction of the anthropological component of the main theoretical achievements of T. Hobbes and J.-J. Rousseau made it possible to explore their understanding of the fundamental problem for human existence - the problem of justice. The Political Anthropology of T. Hobbes and J.-J. Rousseau is the origin and core of the study of the essential interrelation of conflict and cooperative images of human beings and actualizes the philosophical understanding of the mechanisms of formation of autonomous personality and understanding of modern contractualism as an intellectually-effective aid in our attempts to realize personal freedom of human beings in the context of significant transformations save and develop such achievements of modern social project as a human right and a democratic constitutional state.
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