The article analyzes the scientific approaches and current research problems of social adaptation and disadaptation. From a philosophical point of view, discusses the relationship between the processes of adaptation and disadaptation of parents and upbringing of the child with mental and physical disabilities. Analyzed the relationship between the concepts of social adaptation and social maladjustment. The article shows that the birth and upbringing of a child causes parents a range of negative reactions and experiences a crisis of emotional States, with their inherent emotional anxiety, depressive tendencies, situational and personal anxiety, that is a sign of social maladjustment. The consequences of these conditions are: existential crisis, cognitive disorientation of parents, hidden self-destruction of parents, crisis of their self-identification, loss of life prospects, disharmonious relationships in the family, «flight» of parents to work or self-denial, as a result of overvalued attitude to the child, social isolationAcceptance of problems related to parenting a special child is not achieved by all parents, it is a long and difficult way in which a traumatic situation has a psychogenic, frustrating effect on the parents' psyche and indirectly adversely affects their attitude towards the child. Parents differently tolerate the effects of stress: some are very difficult, and this negatively affects their psychosomatic state and presentation of themselves in society. Others find the resource to withstand difficulties and capable of self-realization, and achieve maximum success in socializing the child. It is determined that the integrative nature of psycho-emotional states plays an important role in terms of orientation, activity and consistency in actions to assist their child; their own parental position, as well as their ability to fully realize themselves in family and society. A philosophical analysis of works on the this problems of adaptation and maladaptation makes it possible to consider this problem at a higher level - in the system of «state – personality».
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