Comparative Philosophical Analysis of Systems and Integral Approaches to Study Complex Systems
PDF (Українська)


complexity, systems approach, structure, integral approach, reductionism

How to Cite

Zhulenkov, O. (2019). Comparative Philosophical Analysis of Systems and Integral Approaches to Study Complex Systems. Multiversum. Philosophical Almanac, (1-2), 125-140.


Article devoted to the problem of comparison of concepts of systems and integral approaches to study complex systems. Research problem is actual and important because it is impossible to comprehensively understand the phenomenon of complexity without systems approach. But understanding the concept of complexity and other concepts of systems approach is not enough for comprehensive understanding of being: systems approach passes by all culturological and psychological phenomena. It was explicated concept of complexity, concept of systems approach and concept of integral approach in order to comprehend the problem of comparison of systems and integral approaches to study complex systems. Complexity was defined as characteristic of structure of system. Structure was defined as the totality of interrelationships between a system’s constituents. Here, the complexity of a structure is equated to the degree of its organization and is determined by way of analysis of the system’s emergent properties. It is important to note that in this article complexity is defined as a relative phenomenon. It was comprehended the phenomenon of reductionism, physical and systemic types of reductionism were distinguished. System approach was defined as approach that studies systems as systems: because of nonreducing systems to physical bodies systems approach is free from all manifestations of physical reductionism. Integral approach was explicated as approach to cognition that includes all fundamental ways of interpretation of cognition. As a result of comparative philosophical analysis of systems and integral approaches to studying complex systems conclusion was reached that integral approach includes systems approach by definition, overcoming not only the physical type of reductionism, but the systemic type also.
PDF (Українська)


Bogdanov, A. (1989). Essays in Tektology: The General Science of Organization. In 2 volumes. Moscow: Economics. [Іn Russian].

Knyazeva, E. (2013). Atomism and holism in modern complexity theory. Filosofiya i kul'tura. (Phylosophy and culture), 6, 736-745. [Іn Russian].

Knyazeva, E. (2019). Philosophy of science. Interdisciplinary research strategies: a textbook for undergraduate and graduate studies. Mos-cow: Publishing house Urait. [Іn Russian].

Lukianets, V. (2013). The key directions of modern updating of meth-odological basis of sciences. In V. Lukianets & others (Eds.), The in-dustry of scientific knowledge in the era of high electronics (рр. 19-144). Kyiv: UkrSich. [Іn Ukrainian].

Moren, E. (2005). Method: The Nature of Nature. Moscow: Progress-Tradition. [Іn Russian].

Nicolis, G., & Prigogine, I. (1990). Exploring Complexity. Moscow. [Іn Russian].

New philosophical encyclopedia. (2010). (2nd Ed.) Vol. 1. Moscow: Thought. [In Russian].

O'Connor, J. (2006). The Art of Systems Thinking: Essential Skills for Creativity and Problem Solving. Moscow: Alpina Business Books. [In Russian].

Pilyugin, S. (2010). Development of the theory of smooth dynamical systems in the 20th century. In V. Babich & others; A. Vershik (Ed.), Mathematics of the 20th Century: A View from Petersburg (рр. 152-165). Moscow: MCCME Publishing House [In Russian].

Ratnikov, V. (2009). The phenomenon of complexity as an object of philosophical and methodological comprehension (about nanotechnol-ogy complexity). In Philosophical sciences: collection of scientific pa-pers (pp. 3-12). Sumy: A. S. Makarenko Sumy State Pedagogical University. [In Russian].

Shinkaruk, V., Ozadovska, L., Polischuk, N., Pokarzhevska, I. (Eds.). (2002). Philosophical encyclopedia dictionary. Kyiv: Abris. [Іn Ukrainian].

Christian, D. (2004). Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cook-Greuter, S. R. (2005). AQ as a scanning and mapping device. AQAL: Journal of integral theory and practice, Vol. 1, No 3, 1-17.

Johnson, N. F. (2009). Simply complexity: A clear guide to complexity theory. Oneworld Publications.

Johnson, S. (2001). Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities. New York: Scribner.

Volckmann, R. (2007, March). Complexity and Integral Theory. Integral Leadership Review, Vol. 7, No. 2. Retrieved from http://in