POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AS A CORRELATE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY
POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AS A CORRELATE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY
Theoretical study of political leadership is one of the most controversial topics, since modern globalization and social transformation dynamics give it a particular importance. Lately a range of scientific studies devoted to these problems has expanded significantly – from researches of psychologists, neuroscientists and lawyers to theoretical generalizations by philosophers. Hence, a number of discoveries in processes of socialization and group self-organization, which allows determining promising directions in the study of the leadership phenomenon.
At the same time natural tendencies of modern society compel us vidnahodyty innovative approaches to the given phenomenon, which provided a fundamentally new quality scientific discourse and information and journalistic interpretations. Note that the idea of the public about the essential characteristics of political leadership formed under the decisive influence perceptions about the uniqueness of this social phenomenon that can change the course of the historical process and provide their own ethnic group prominent in social progress. However, the last time all the more important approaches began to acquire a functional meaning, in which public figures seen as offering public activities for hired manager. This inevitably narrows the interpretation of the essence of leadership, reducing it to the level and executive. Example – some modern politicians, showing some bureaucratic capacity, showing utter helplessness in dealing with strategic issues.
Investigating the principles of rule mechanisms usurpation of power, we focus on the analysis of key concepts mentioned range of problems – namely, political leadership, which is formatted in accordance with the expectations of society. Any community, especially for the sake of their own interests, should develop mechanisms to monitor the activities of government institutions and mechanisms to prevent any abuse yakymsprobam officials.
On the issue of political leadership worked such prominent thinkers of antiquity, as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Heraclitus, Cicero. They were the founders of the concepts of leadership in antiquity. During the Renaissance and the New Time is – N.Makiavelli that identified some of the main characteristics of contemporary leaders T.Hobbes that developed the concept of absolute sovereign. Various aspects of political leadership with a review of our developed Friedrich Nietzsche, Zh.Blondel, Berdyaev, Weber, H.Hehel, T.Karleyl, A.Shopenhauer and others. They managed to find the key aspects of the political leadership to identify the main features of this phenomenon, emphasizing the human nature in the context of thirst for power. Among domestic researchers significant contribution to the coverage of examining problems realized S.Kuznetsova, A.Paharev, H.Pocheptsov, V.Rebkalo, V.Ryhlyk and others.
Consider the dynamics of transformation of the main positions of political leaders as part of a modern civil society, that will focus on the most efficient functioning of leadership politician settings. Enough has widely spread concept, according to which political leader of modern society employs voting for him. In general, his role can be interpreted as Managing Executive, whose activities are clearly defined in advance electoral expectations and sentiments. The main purpose of this type of leader – to meet the expectations of the people who were declared during the election campaign and appeals to the public by presenting «the most perfect program.» Modern man sees it for granted. It is actually called the work a modern new type of politics (and it should be emphasized that the so his hire). As this type of policy manager performs specific functions that, however, distinguish it from the hardware only official way of coming to power – a policy not appoint and elect by popular vote. We believe that this problem brings radically beyond the classic idea of leadership, because at the general public is a revolution in the treatment of a leader who actually served the public through some media projects hired political technologists. A number of social and political transformation are no longer considered a leader in the community as an individual and charismatic personality, which aims to change the world for the benefit of the general public and is an expression of people’s deep aspirations. In the information society leadership is perceived as a team game, within which every participant performs a vital and necessary work, and the leader as the team captain, is a good performer that gets its due role coach and circumstances, often at random for him. In our view, it is necessary to make a comparative analysis of political leadership in the classical interpretation and its postmodern interpretation. For this we turn to the understanding of the typology of leadership in modern political science, applying the following criteria: functions and leadership role in the community, the style and methods of its activities, values, nature of participation in the organization of political power, scope and level of its impact on society.
A well-known western political analyst M.Hermann, applying criteria of theoretical research functions and role of political leader in the system of power relations, offered quite a reasonable classification of political leaders, dividing them as follows:
A) leader «salesman» – meaning its activities and sees the incarnation meet a specific set of needs and interests of their supporters and followers;
B) The leader of the «fireman» – is able to respond quickly to the conditions of irregular social situation, is trying to do here and now, counter–acting negative conditions or threats to the existence of their own community;
B) leader – «puppet» – under the influence of close people whom he trusts implicitly. We emphasize that this group is a large proportion of pragmatists who are not his personal followers, their interest is focused more on their own values and desires and, in practice, called pragmatists motivated not altruistic sentiments on society [1, 92].
In our opinion, the three types of modern political leader determined M.Hermannom, pay special attention to the last, the third type, namely – the «puppet leader.» It is clear that in real life is extremely difficult to identify the type named in pure form. Typically, it contains elements of the other two, but within the Information Society gained considerable popularity primarily because of the effect of social factors. After all, modern management model certainly provide theoretical understanding and processing decisions made by politicians in various areas – military, economic, educational, scientific, and others. It is clear that the modern politician is obliged to form a professional team of associates, often talented individuals. He himself only represents the interests of the elite group, which makes direction of social transformation.
In considering the above set of problems arises the question: how justified are the third type conceptualization of leadership as the defining? Indeed, globalization is inherently involve various phases of social transformation, within which is pressing social need for the emergence of other functional leadership or even symbiosis. In our view, the determining factor here is the social situation and the level of cohesion passionarnym social classes, which correlate and is a social demand for a certain leadership algorithm. However, note that the scale of a political leader is determined primarily by its ability to overcome the limitations of his own corporate segments and the ability to acquire features of national leader. Brilliant proof of this transformation is Bogdan Khmelnitsky that of protector «Cossack liberties» at the beginning of the uprising, in a very short time has become a recognized leader of the Ukrainian nation [2, 127]. Unfortunately, Ukrainian history gives us many examples of reversible – when political figures denominated in mass consciousness as leaders have not been able to rise above the small town of its own ideological dimensions.
In order to analyze more thoroughly the phenomenon of political leadership should seek to analyze the behavioral patterns of known US figures suggested by Professor Dzh.Farberom. These are the models:
- – аctive and positive, most effective, as a leader, which it characterized, stands in productive labor, rational awareness of their tasks reflective ratio of personal skills and capabilities;
- – аctive and negative, focused on satisfying their own ambitions by career that motivated properties egocentric person;
– Passive–positive – a model implementation duties – aimed at preserving the leading personal values, ideas and circle of supporters, forcing the leader to take political decisions within unchanging traditions;
- passive–negative, which provides for minimum performance leader in its responsibilities within the existing system of professional relations, but typical for such a leader – or divert their duties, impulsive or hasty decision making [3, 395].
As you can see, the psychological content of political leadership is a very important factor activity–setting individual who claims to be a leading social role. It should be noted that the psychological component usually acts only against the background of social background and expectations of the public sentiment.Rozhlyadayuchy apolohizatsiyu political leadership styles and psychological behavior towards implementing obligations, pay attention to the concept R.Stohdilla who notes that «basically leadership – a product (social. – Ed.) situation» [3, 395]. In different circumstances, the functioning of society among passionarnym walks distinguishes individuals that are at least partially dominated by other specific set of abilities, but they are the most appropriate for specific social situations due to specific factors all previous social experience of community and is dominant in this society. And the behaviors of political leaders in earlier historical times determined mythological archetypes and sufficiently tightly regulate the activities of public figures, as if adjusting them in predetermined algorithms. The person in whose best was developed these characteristics, won the chance to take a leading role in society, and provided support for its active social strata and most enlightened for his time segments become charismatic politician, the real biography which and legendary stories about his act just affect its incompatibility. After archetype of the leader–founder interpretation provides its superiority in any and all areas of human activity – political, military, judicial, organizational and others. And even if a leader loses responsibility for failure rests with the independent circumstances or to mediocre performers who failed to properly implement his plan leaders.
Thus, by intuition and intellectual content leader depends the progress of socio–political processes, but the possibility of exposure to deterministic specific historical factors, within which is formed and the political community, and in fact the very politician. For Stohdillom it – function circumstances and someone who can be a leader in a particular situation, other circumstances will not be able to realize their full leadership inclinations. The peculiarity of this view is that leadership interpreted as a rather relative, situational concept although supporters still recognize the need for competence, commitment, self–confidence, willingness to take responsibility for the solution of a problem [3, 396 ]. In our view, the weakness of situational concept is to underestimate the personal activity of a man who, having leadership potential, yet able to express themselves not only public policy but in the other direction – say, spiritual, intellectual or military. In this context the idea E.Hartli American researcher who proposed four «social model» that can give a particular interpretation of why some people still become leaders, not just special circumstances it determined their nomination: 1) if the person has become a leader in one situation, then it is a chance to take the appropriate position otherwise increased; 2) if the person has shown himself as a leader, it will certainly come into its own authority which may contribute to her appointment to a senior position and thus consolidate its leadership formally; 3) if the perception of stereotypical, then, if a person has become a leader in one situation, the group perceive it in the same social roles and otherwise; 4) a leader for E.Hartli, is the one who wanted it most to [3, 396], because seek – is to believe in their own ability, and this in turn – a powerful motivation can become the driving force of personality.
In our opinion, the current theoretical understanding of leadership becoming more fully represented in the system of leadership theory, according to which leadership is seen as a process of interpersonal relations in the group and the leader – as the subject of managing this process. In this approach, leadership is interpreted as a function of its worth and learn from the perspective of goals and objectives, although the psychological structure of the individual leader is not to be overlooked researcher. As for the political leadership should be noted that the approach of system formation theory of leadership is also a productive, just in this case represents the interests of a political leader is not a group of people and a civil society is its function. Each voice is given to voters for a political leader, за політичного лідера, designed to meet the electoral interests. In other words, the leader of appeal to the interests of the people and people’s faith can lead to government policy, but the policy only becomes a true leader when it begins to fulfill their election promises, otherwise political trust loan will fall as its reputation. Political leadership, like any other kind of rule, has a beginning and an end. In our opinion, leadership – it is also a resource that fueled the people’s trust. However, there is another kind of rule that can exist after the exhaustion of the resource confidence in the helmsman own people and called tyranny. Tyranny as a manifestation of political leadership was well analyzed a large number of thinkers of past ages, and modern scientists. She devoted a lot of theories, but they all came to the common conclusion – lack of support for public periodic briberies offset some part of it and incredibly brutal massacre of discordant. However, the whole country got rid of despots revolutionary activities and, unfortunately, mass loss of human lives. In our opinion, each process rule tyranny as not without important in this context the «will to power», in other words – «lust for rule» or the ambitious desire to conquer and manage. The term «will to power» offered in his writings Friedrich Nietzsche, putting it most motivated to rule. The will to power – a blind, instinctive, unconscious movement, a powerful impulse that governs the world [4, 174]. У своїх наукових напрацюваннях філософ поділяє всі види волі на такі напрями:
1. 1. The will to live. This concept he inherited from his predecessor talented A.Shopenhauer. This type of will represents the instinct for survival and the inherent human desire to live [5, 267].
2. Will internal – expressing resistance opinion of human nature, invincible spirit and the ability to have their own beliefs and goals.
3. The unconscious will. After analyzing it, it can be argued that this idea is consonant with the ideas of psychoanalysis Z.Freyd, because here it covers unconscious human passions, emotions, instincts that govern it [6, 187]. Nietzsche emphasizes that people are not always rational beings, it is not able to govern themselves entirely.
4. The will to power is able to be realized in each person a greater or lesser extent. This feature, according thinker, is present in every living being, all the others want to win a and thus become free from the influence of other [4, 193]. Power – this is not something that you can use, and what really fills all. It is the main criterion of human action. This – the universal principle activity of which we see almost every step of mankind. Thinker notes that it is «happiness», namely power is the main reason to combat human adversities of life. That awareness of human will to power is the main sign of happiness.
Another component of the philosophy of Nietzsche, noteworthy in the context of the study of political leadership – the so–called theory of «superman» most fully described in «Thus Spake Zarathustra.» Philosopher depicts the «superman» as a person not just a ruler of their own fate, but the fate of others. This phenomenon is treated as a completely new vehicle values, norms, attitudes and moral positions. Superman can and should be devoid of conventional morality, compassion, moreover, should have their own, personal view of the world, correlated with completely free choice of their own behavioral patterns. According to the philosopher, this person should be deprived of conscience because conscience – a mechanism of manipulation, control, invisible king, able to control the inner life of each person; it has no expiration date. Superman is able to disregard the feelings of others, do not pay attention to what someone considers it immoral or deviant behavior.
The main features of the «Superman» – a spiritually creative, full concentration of the will to power, individualism (complete rejection of the norms of society, community guidelines) [4, 207]. To be a «superman» says Nietzsche, to be extraordinary (bright) personality, distinguishable from others, constantly self–improvement and, not least, comply optimistic zhyttyestverdzhuvalnoyi position. It should be noted that the very fact indicates scientist nonexistence Superman so casually predicting the emergence of at least two centuries. According to Nietzsche, modern society is not ready for the appearance of Superman, it is unable to grow. Superman himself against good people (including – Christians) as mindless, not able to work, but prone to constant lies and hypocrisy [4, 213]. It is alleged niyvyschyy biological type that corresponds to the modern man, as well as with people today relate monkey. Appearing, it will be a completely new type (type of) person with an incredible sign of spiritual greatness.
Thus, the existence of leadership – namely, his political format, continues to remain the focus of researchers, as a century ago. Leadership exists in all dimensions of time, moreover, it can alter the face of civilization, accelerate their development or their positive actions lead to regression. The politician – not necessarily a leader, and leadership – not necessarily politics. The existence of political rule due to a large number of factors, but the central figure always act a person in authority. Political leadership as possible in format situational approach, and in the format of individual data display of powerful intelligent man. Leadership can also exist as a regular appointment, although in this case the possible manifestation of leadership called «puppet leader» because the person just takes desire supporters or officials of higher level managerial staff. Many scientists have enriched the theories of philosophy is political leadership, calling the proper leader of the «superman» (Nietzsche) and «fireman» (for M.Hermannom) in the context of the fight with government crises. Leader – not just a coach, manager or ringleader, is primarily conscious, responsible person interested in the welfare of citizens. However, in our time, political leaders dare not justify the hopes of the people who have so long sought better change. Leader in any society designed to serve humanistic direction, namely, to unite society around common goals; create harmony, consensus, mutual understanding in society.
The problem of political leadership is complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. Only use a complex variety of research methods and application of a multidisciplinary approach will help to reach the main facets of the phenomenon. The presence of man in the world, the effectiveness of its own time frame allotted life and characterize a person with leadership qualities, because it affects which character she will go down in the history of mankind – positive or negative.
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5. Schopenhauer A. Aphorisms of worldly wisdom [in Russian]. – Moscow, 2015. – 304 p.
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Полисаєв О.О. Політичне лідерство як корелят поступу сучасного суспільства.
У статті досліджуються концептуальні підходи до проблеми політичного лідерства видатними мислителями минулого та їх вплив на сучасні розвідки зазначеного феномену. Піддано аналізу особливості становлення феномену лідерства в інформаційному суспільстві як чинника поступального розвитку людства.
Ключові слова: політичне лідерство, громадянське суспільство, пасіонарні верстви, соціальна ситуація, суспільний поступ, інформаційне суспільство.
Полисаев А.А. Политическое лидерство как коррелят развития информационного общества.
В статье рассмотрены концептуальные подходы к проблеме политического лидерства выдающимися мыслителями прошлого и их влияние на современные исследования указанного феномена. Подвергнуты анализу особенности становления феномена лидерства в информационном обществе как фактора поступательного развития человечества.
Ключевые слова: политическое лидерство, гражданское общество, пассионарные слои, социальная ситуация, общественный прогресс, информационное общество.
Polysaev A. Political leadership as a correlate of the development of the informational society.
The article examines conceptual approaches to the problem of political leadership of outstanding philosophers of the past and their impact on modern research of this phenomenon. The peculiarities of the formation of the phenomenon of leadership in the information society are analyzed, as a factor of progressive development of mankind.
Key words: political leadership, civil society, passionarity layers, social situation, social progress, the informational society.