EVOLUTION OF «LIVING SPACE» OF A HUMAN BEING IN A PERIOD FROM SCIENTIFIC-AND-TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE TO INFORMATION EVOLUTION ERA
applicant NPU named M.P. Dragomanov
EVOLUTION OF «LIVING SPACE» OF A HUMAN BEING IN A PERIOD FROM SCIENTIFIC–AND–TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE TO INFORMATION EVOLUTION ERA
Rapid expansion of a human and society «living space» took place in a period of scientific and technological advance of humankind, which began in the modern era. The driving force of this expansion was the desire for a continuous increase in consumable goods and accordingly for the consumption of resources. In the context of the capitalist system, the subject of labor is separated from everyday life, is constantly in the artificial environment where it is required above all to demonstrate knowledge and skills, not imagination and emotions. Massive introduction of technical means was the main result of this rationalization, having changed fundamentally the living space of a human and society.
Consider the human living space and trace its evolution on the example of scientific and technological process and the information revolution.
Showing content from the named technical and technological breakthrough that ensured the extension of the living space of man and society in the era of modern times, it is worth noting that the concept of technology marks the organization of production, the way of its implementation. So technology – is artificially created by man of means and methods of its activities designed to efficiently achieve some specific goals. The meaning of technology is that it is a means to human activities should not replace it. Its key function – strengthening «of» and human potential, including intelligent. Based on the foregoing, the term «technology» can be seen in the narrow sense – as a technical device (artifact), created man from the elements of nature to solve specific cultural objectives, and more – as any means which characterize the actions (writing technique , accounts, swimming) as artificial or organizational method that strengthens, improves or facilitates the action. Technical and technological dimension of culture is presented mechanism and means of mastering the natural and essential forces of man (and thus – the development of freedom). However, he can change his destiny, to acquire a destructive nature to culture [1, 8].
I.Suhyna, given that the concept of «technology» and «technology» are often identified, stresses that the machinery – is essentially material and material means, the tools of human technology and under must understand specific sphere of creation and application of human engineering means. In its unity engineering and technology create technological culture, which should be considered as a synonym of material culture [2, 93–94].
Such unity is a defining characteristic of human living space and society in modern times. It was in this era of technology made the constitution as a key component of the productive forces, which brings society to a new level of development of nature. Thus, the living space of man and society expands, changing not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Accordingly, social philosophy begins to separate the components of theoretical models of living space problem of balance of natural and artificial [3, 15].
Due to technical and technological breakthrough humanity committed in the period of modern times, technically mastered environment raises new living space and human society. Without world technology existence of human society becomes impossible because relationship with this environment becomes the ontological nature. As the O.Aliyeva, engineering, engaging in structural interaction between subject and object, making the initiation of human being to objectivity, openness implements subject to objective being, there is a means of expanding human existence, strengthening its impact on world objects [4 11].
According to contemporary German philosopher V.Hosle, novochasova technology is an unprecedented phenomenon in the history of mankind. The essence of the technology era, this thinker sees as a fundamental violation of the inherent former history balance between theoria, poiesis and praxis: the pure contemplation of the world, as well as the relationship between the people oriented moral standards increasingly subordinated to technical criteria, losing in the end, their value [5, 108]. Thus, the living space of the new times of individuals and society expands, vybudovuyuchys on new foundations.
Even in the era of early modern times (XVI – beginning of XVII century.) Mankind was made important technological inventions and launched new technologies. In particular, sailboats doubled the speed of movement long before the establishment of steamship vessels. Communication networks in developed countries gradually became more dense. Technical factors created opportunities for strengthening governance, strengthening government control over all subjects [6, 115].
However, the industrial revolution did not stop there: the objective requirements of social development have shaped the subsequent large–scale technical and technological progress. He was associated not only with science prerequisites, but with special social circumstances where ideals and values of domination and possession, which is usually associated phenomenon techniques, hierarchical caste overcome social barriers [1, 9] . The consequence is the establishment of industrial (technological) civilization a society with intensive, not extensive course of social processes accentuated on temporal characteristics, changes individualism, not the spatial parameters, traditions and stable social structures, both in pre–industrial civilizations [7, 314 ].
V.Stopin singles out a number of landmarks, the underlying philosophical foundations of industrial society, which played a crucial role in expanding the living space of man and society: the principle of transformational action or the idea of active transformation of the world and conquer human nature as dominant in the culture of industrial society at all stages of its existence, close to our time. This is interpreted as a major component «of the genetic code,» which defined the existence and evolution of man–made societies; understanding of nature as an orderly, logical held field use human forces, in which a rational creature that has known laws of nature, able to exercise its authority over external processes, phenomena and objects, control them. Accordingly, man is understood as a force that opposes nature, makes it necessary for objects for a substantive form; is the paradigm of power, strength and dominance over the natural and social conditions based not personal, but the real relationship (ie, during the shift in understanding subjects of domination, power and authority from person to set up her things), increased importance, the role of scientific rationality, scientific tehnichnohopohlyadu the world, technical and scientific attitude towards the world is recognized as a basic for the transformation of this world. Said dominant worldview living space leads to belief in the fundamental possibility of rational organization of social relations [8, 308–309].
The above outlook dominant industrial society determine the constant expansion of the living space of man and society during the era of modern times. Economic growth based on technology, technology, science in this period there is a leading determinant of social development. The idea of transforming the world and conquer human nature becomes dominant in the culture of industrial society, defining the constant expansion of the living space of man and society. The position of the individual in industrial society, compared with the traditional society, qualitative changes: it is in New starting to be approved principles of liberty, equality outgoing people the autonomy of the individual, inviolability of personal rights and freedoms [9, 70].
These principles of development of society associated with large–scale technical and technological breakthrough, had a significant impact on the education of the individual. The development of capitalism, rationalization of life, intensive social dynamics, competition in Western European countries called and demanded that human activity, self–confidence, develop its abilities. Under these conditions, the spread of individualistic strategy of gaining self that realized mainly in models of professional self and self.
In the western modern culture emerged and became widespread notion selfmademan (the man who created himself), which meant reaching a certain social status and material wealth, the development of skills as landmarks self [10, 196]. The individual may vytvoryty itself only when it is new, that is rational, build their relations with other individuals. The idea of social technology is a natural and very early in the product development technology [5, 112–113], which established itself in the living space modern society, largely determining its value priorities.
As one of the urgent needs of the society of modern times arose the need for effective development of technology, it felt impossible without the continued existence of the appropriate type of man – man technical world. Relevant social type peculiar nature of such features as «instrumental reason». The concept of «instrumental reason» included the appearance in terms of industrial civilization reasonable professional type, which has such features as instrumental, mechanicalness, nehumannist, lack of thinking in general human and moral aspects [4, 16].
Such changes of living space and human society revealed the downside of technological civilization that had received the most complete expression in the doctrines of technocracy. Key point technocracy «power – the professionals’ desire vidobrazhuvalo scientific, technical, administrative» elite «to preserve the dominant position in society, to limit the power of the» incompetent intervention. « An absolute principles of rationality and technical feasibility, technocratic ideology drove people to the means of achieving external goals, and most facilities (equipment) acquired the character of an end in itself [11, 356].
Thus, expanding the living space of man and society during the large–scale technical and technological breakthrough was due to human cultural displacement of traditional society with new values of industrial civilization. Leading among them took the idea of power, strength, struggle, domination over nature.
The evolution of society of modern times revealed the fundamental contradiction of industrial society. On the one hand, technological civilization focused on individual freedom, mobilizes its activity stimulates the development of his needs and abilities, thus potentially extending the living space of man and society. But, on the other hand, focus on the main goal of industrial civilization – increasing material wealth through continuous updating of technical and economic systems – transforms man into a simple function, a means of economic areas, narrowing the real possibilities of human self.
Overcome these contradictions outlines the new contours of the living space during the information revolution, which generally can be Author determined as the creation and dissemination of new information technologies for the most productive production, efficient organization and effective use of information identifying the transition from an industrial to an information society .
Among the major factors distinguish the information society, researchers, information and knowledge as the main driving forces of society, and information resources – both strategic resources of society; global information, the rapid development of information and communication technologies as the basis for the new knowledge economy; novelty, transience, acceleration of the most characteristic features of knowledge; 6–8–year cycle update both production and social technologies; continuing education and skill retraining as an integral part of preserving the social status of the individual .
The promotion of these factors outline the contours of a new living space and modern human society, there is a natural consequence of the information revolution. The revolution in information now assumes the character of a global process aimed at overcoming the contradictions between existing capabilities and the limited scope of information resources needed to meet the information needs of individuals and society. Thus, the information revolution is qualitatively changes the living space of man and society, opening them immense field of information model of culture, consumption and lifestyles different from those values given immediate social environment. Expanding the horizons of information makes a powerful impact on the value orientation of people who are increasingly determined by common, recognized worldwide standards the modern lifestyle [9, 71–72].
Information is a strategic resource in the development of the living space as the entire society and each person is able to provide new opportunities for human self–improvement and personal growth. Information technology by expanding the network of interactions in a mode of «I – Another», «I – Thou» contribute to the emergence of a single ethos, which provides recognition of the sanctity of human life, the general right to happiness and fulfillment in conjunction with the duty to promote the development of planetary solidarity and environmental protection .
Globally, information society characterizes the concept of information space – the area of dissemination of information through specific components of information and communications and information operation activities has guaranteed legal security. To component information space researchers include: material (technological) possibilities of disseminating information in all directions; the presence of regional and international agreements, based on the understanding character [15, 9].
The characteristic information space, in our view, makes it possible to define it an integral part of the living space of modern humanity. As the O.Dubas, information space, constantly expanding and playing an increasingly important role in people’s lives, creates new living space in a whole field within which individuals interact. The specifics of it is dissociation of the two levels of existence: the real and the virtual, which leads to new rules and situations exist [16, 224]. Buying global nature of information technologies contribute to the expansion of communication and the formation of a unified communication space, in which formed its own special laws and norms of behavior and outlook [17, 3].
In the living space of the information society people are the main consumers of information collected, converted, stored according to human needs. So people simultaneously appears as the creator of your information space, and its main element for the existence and development of space. Nowadays social life is largely determined by the level of development and conversion speed information space, so that society is actually a common information space with a highly powerful infrastructure and Information Fund [9, 72].
O.Bunkivska connects the transition from an industrial to informa–tion (post–industrial) society of the increased use of existing information and technical and technological resources. A key feature of the Information Society researcher identifies the emergence of innovative forms of social activity of individuals / social–cial groups through the prism of communicative and information technology as a means of resolving conflicts between constantly about bull–coking knowledge and capabilities and scope of their application. These technologies are a means of entering information space for knowledge society [15, 11]. Thus, they constituted as an essential factor in modern human living space and society.
L.Ionin, looking at different areas of the living space of the society, said that information technology plays a dual role in politics, undermining the basic institutions of liberal democracy and the economy, breaking the traditional proportions of economic development, destroying the labor market; they generate a huge pro–lems in other areas of society [18, 17]. The need to address these social problems causes a need within our study given to information technology as a factor of global change today living space of man and society.
The most common type of information and communication technologies are now Internet. The consequences of the operation for the living space of man and society are evaluated by researchers as sufficiently controversial – from uniquely design (creation of the global information space, which helps to ensure the access of the individual to unlimited information, the growth rate of the required information) – to clearly destructive (reduction of social interaction, narrowing social relations, the development of depressive situations autyzatsiya children and adolescents, the formation of the inadequacy of social perception) .
During the information revolution, the Internet creates, in effect, a new living space of mankind, above all – thanks to the social services. Their intense development at the beginning of XXI centuries qualitatively change the field of communication and interaction between modern humans. The scale and speed of transformation of living space is so big now that not only individuals but also society in general often do not have time deeply comprehend their implications, develop appropriate strategies to minimize the economic, political, environmental, psychological risks of modern social and cultural space.
In this situation, IT faces a key factor in the change of mind of modern man. In particular, some time ago to common problems internetkorystuvachiv belonged conduct their anonymity, while often users now not only hide their identity, but also seek (through Twitter and social networks) to make public the events of their own daily lives. Transfer events of real life to the virtual space (and vice versa) is a step towards integration of real and virtual components of human living space [20, 89].
To view the specific information kompo¬nenta modern living space rights now increasingly used the term «virtual space» as the space generated by modern information and communication technologies. In virtual reality fade spatial and temporal separation erased virtualization of living space and human society characterized by a completely new type of symbolic human existence, society, culture.
Virtual space inherent bias model and reality, resulting in a shift of the poles that meant, and what defines. The latter, in turn, leads to the fact that the reality of Contents spectacular passes in the plane, and the reality loses its foundation and it is the neutralization of meaning. Updating virtual as a form of transgression can contribute to the enrichment of areas of consciousness and identity, expanding its living world and life opportunities. But updating the virtual component of the living space can be destructive to the individual, because it contains a threat of unfettered, demonic creativity, which can destroy the personality and the things [21, 46].
The dual effects of virtualization living space modern humanity is because virtual space is fundamentally open antyiyerarhichnym, detsentrychnym, mobile. It can simulate and change. All virtual space boundaries are blurred, flexible and transparent. Consequently it a person can «try on» play different social roles, acquire and bring together different spatial topoi. But due to the lack of any restrictions immersion identity in the virtual world can not only expand the scale of living space, but also to neutralize its value–semantic and personal certainty, facilitate the replacement of the reality of simulacra, real, personal human contact – they are superficial, impersonal forms [ 21, 47].
Being and communicating in the virtual space, a person begins to lose the status of socio–cultural identity as fully adopt rules that dictates her virtual reality. In this space there is no clear delineation of concepts such as good and evil, beautiful and ugly. Virtual space is divided into its sphere of strange and does not consider neither state nor ethnic or gender that may be changed by the user. While there, the person stops to think about his physicality, buttyevistyu categories as living space, since all these concepts are unimportant in communication by technical means. In the process of communication in cyberspace is changing the very nature and mechanism smysloutvo–Rennes, which now requires verbal communication, fixation attention to gestures and movements interlocutor does not consider either tone or rhythm, or stress, rejects eye contact, making textual form of communication archetypes can detect forms of human communication [22, 356].
These challenges actualize the problem of self–glycol dyny in modern society. Understanding the contours of the living space during the information revolution leads researchers to conclude that the driving force of progress for the future of modern humanity is not the information itself, and human knowledge. In this context, emphasizes the need to distinguish between the concepts of information and knowledge. Information – is information that often express personal opinion of the speaker, they can be unreliable and contradictory. Knowledge – is the result of understanding reality that is systemic, consistent design and are objective in nature (independent of the will of man) [23, 186].
Unlike other components of the living space of man and of society at the present stage, knowledge has certain special–features of the species: knowledge, in fact, is a competitive resource, ie it is public. Now it can be used by many people simultaneously, whereas previously, access to it was limited; knowledge as such are intangible, so eternal; knowledge accumulated nonlinear, through scientific discovery, it is growing leaps and bounds; knowledge is relative, that every single piece of it acquires meaning only in the other pieces that form the context; knowledge is cumulative, as with any other knowledge. The more knowledge, the more diverse and useful combinations composed of them; knowledge is the most mobile resource; knowledge is compact, it can be represented by a number of abstractions and symbols; knowledge is inexhaustible and accumulates at a rate that is growing [24, 168].
So steady increase in the role of knowledge in post–industrial society led to the emergence of the concept of «knowledge society», which had received wide acceptance in the late XX – early XXI century. It reflects the main characteristics of post–industrial society, but on a higher evolutionary stage when production are the main resource of knowledge and development – the man.
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Ігнатко В.С. Еволюція «життєвого простору» людини від періоду науково–технічного прогресу до епохи інформаційної революції.
Аналізуються зміни сутнісних характеристик «життєвого простору людини» в період науково–технічного прогресу та інформаційної революції; інформаційна революція визначається як масштабний технологічний і технічний прогрес людства, зумовлений успіхами природознавства та соціальними обставинами; наводиться низка домінант та принципів розбудови суспільства і цивілізації, пов’язаних з науково–технічним прогресом та інформаційною революцією. Техніку та технологію автор розглядає як інструменти розширення життєвого простору, посилення його активності у перетворенні природи та творенні культури, акцентує увагу на суперечностях цього процесу, зокрема екологічного плану, які спонукають до формування техногенної цивілізації, ворожій людині і суспільству. Вихід із ситуації – у розв’язанні глобальних проблем сучасної цивілізації в процесі переходу до інформаційного суспільства з його відкритістю та глобальним демократизмом, людиноцентризмом, пріоритетом інтелекту та знань і високою духовністю.
Ключові слова: людина, культура, техніка, технологія, інформація, інформаційна революція, суспільство знань, духовність.
Игнатко В.С. Эволюция «жизненного пространства» человека от периода научно–технического прогресса до эпохи информационной революции.
Анализируются изменения сущностных характеристик «жизненного пространства человека» в период научно–технического прогресса и информационной революции; информационная революция определяется как масштабный технологический и технический прогресс человечества, обусловленный успехами естествознания и социальными обстоятельствами; приводится ряд доминант и принципов развития общества и цивилизации, связанных с научно–техническим прогрессом и информационной революцией. Технику и технологию автор рассматривает как инструменты расширения жизненного пространства, усиления его активности в преобразовании природы и создании культуры; акцентирует внимание на противоречиях этого процесса, в частности экологического плана, которые побуждают к формированию техногенной цивилизации, враждебной человеку и обществу. Выход из ситуации – в решении глобальных проблем современной цивилизации в процессе перехода к информационному обществу с его открытостью и глобальным демократизмом, человекоцент–ризмом, приоритетом интеллекта и знаний и высокой духовностью.
Ключевые слова: человек, культура, техника, технология, информация, информационная революция, общество знаний, духовности.
Ignatko V. Evolution of «living space» of a human being in a period from scientific–and–technological advance to information evolution era.
The paper analyzes changes of essential characteristics of «human living space» in a period of scientific–and–technological advance and information revolution; information revolution was analyzed as a major technological and technicaladvance of mankind, which is associated with scientific and natural prerequisites and social circumstances; a number of landmarks and principles for the development of society and civilization related to scientific and technological advance and the information revolution were noted; machinery and technology were considered by author as tools for expansion of living space, which strengthen its activity in transforming nature and creation of culture; contradictions of this process, including environmental plan that lead to the formation of industrial society, hostile to person and society, were highlighted ; way out from this situation is seen by the author in solving global problems of modern civilization during transition to information society with its global openness and democracy, anthropocentrism, priority of intellect and knowledge and high spirituality.
Key words: human being, culture, machinery, technology, information, information revolution, knowledge society, spirituality.